05/12/2022
Breast Cancer

What is the effect of smoking on breast cancer? – 2022

breast cancer

What is the effect of smoking on breast cancer?

Not long ago, a link between breast cancer and smoking was found. Studies conducted in recent years have determined that long-term…

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Smoking and Breast Cancer: What’s the Link?

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Breast implant – does breast silicone trigger breast cancer?

Although a silicone breast implant may cause scar tissue in the breast, it does not generally increase the risk of breast cancer. Implants make it difficult to visualize breast tissue on standard mammography. However, additional x-ray images taken with the displacement of the implant may allow for more detailed examination of the breast tissue.

What is the role of chemicals in breast cancer?

Considerable research has been done on chemicals and possible environmental effects on breast cancer risk have been tried to be understood. Estrogen properties of compounds found in the environment have been investigated in laboratory environment with animal experiments. For example; products such as substances found in some plastics, personal care products, pesticides are discussed. An extensive study has recently been published on this topic:

High priority chemicals that can cause breast cancer

What is the effect of smoking on breast cancer?

Not long ago, a link between breast cancer and smoking was found. Studies conducted in recent years have determined that long-term excessive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer. For example, a woman who has smoked continuously since her youth is certain to be in the highest risk group.

Does working at night work improve breast cancer in women?

Some studies have shown that women who work at night – for example; They suggested that night shifts in nurses – the risk of developing breast cancer may increase. According to the largest study on this subject, the results of which were announced in 2016, night shift work does not increase the risk of breast or any other cancer.

Types of breast cancer

Until the beginning of the 2000s, breast cancer was roughly examined in two groups as sensitive and insensitive to estrogen hormone, but today this information has changed and it has been discovered that breast cancer is in 4 main types according to the receptors that cancer cells carry on their surfaces or not, that is, according to their biological properties.

  • Luminal A: Tumors sensitive to estrogen hormone (ER positive)
  • Luminal B: Tumors weakly sensitive to estrogen hormone and/or also carrying Her2 receptor (Her2 positive)
  • Her2 positive: Tumors carrying the Her2 receptor insensitive to estrogen hormone
  • Triple negative: Tumors lacking the hormone estrogen and Her2 receptor (triple negative breast cancer, also known as basal type)

According to a study published in Nature in 2016, the cell surface receptor of the hormone prolactin in patients with triple negative breast cancer may be an important marker in increasing the life expectancy of patients and preventing them from being exposed to intensive treatments. This study is an indication that triple negative breast cancer also has subclasses with different characteristics.

Breast cancer precursor lesions

In the case of breast cancer, it is also necessary to define precancerous (precancerous) lesions of the breast. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ – DCIS and Lobular Carcinoma IN Situ – LCIS are two of the lesions that lead to breast cancer and are likely to develop into breast cancer.

Ductal carcinoma in situ – DCIS

It is the abnormality of the cells lining the breast milk ducts and is a very early stage of breast cancer. If the biopsy result from your breast has been reported as DCIS, it means that some cells in your breast ducts have started to turn into cancerous cells. DCIS can be classified as high, medium and low grade. High-grade tumors tend to grow more rapidly, recur more frequently after treatment, and are more prone to transform into classical breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma). The mainstay of treatment in high- and moderate-grade DCIS is surgery, in which the tumor is removed along with some normal surrounding tissue. This breast cancer surgery is called “wide-regional excision” or “lumpectomy.” According to a recently published study, surgery does not provide additional survival benefits for patients with low-grade tumors, and active follow-up with breast examination every 6-12 months and annual mammography should be considered as an option for these patients.

 

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