What is Congenital Scoliosis? – 2022


What is Congenital Scoliosis?

Scoliosis, which has different types based on its origins, is called congenital scoliosis (congenital scoliosis) if it develops before…

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What is Congenital Scoliosis?


What is Congenital Scoliosis?

Scoliosis, which has different types based on its origins, is called congenital scoliosis (congenital scoliosis) if it develops before birth, that is, while the baby is still in the mother’s womb.

Congenital scoliosis, unlike idiopathic scoliosis, which is the most common type of scoliosis, often does not respond to brace treatment and can be detected in postnatal controls. Since the baby has just started to develop, treatment can be started immediately.

What Causes Congenital Scoliosis?

In the womb, the spine first forms to resemble a tube. Afterwards, this tube-shaped structure divides and provides the formation of the vertebrae and the discs between them. Congenital scoliosis is a type of scoliosis that occurs due to abnormalities that occur during the formation of the baby’s spine in the mother’s womb. These deteriorations that occur in the mother’s womb during the development of the baby’s spine cause the congenital scoliosis type. This situation, which may occur in relation to the differentiation or formation of the vertebrae during development, can be classified in 2 different ways:

Formation problems;

Under normal conditions, a standard vertebra resembles a rectangle. If, for some reason, the vertebrae of the baby in the womb are not fully formed and have developed in a triangle-like manner, this causes congenital scoliosis. In such a case, the muscles that develop according to the standard shape of the spine put more pressure on a part of the body, triggering the development of scoliosis.

separation problems;

What is meant by separation problems is the situation in which one or, in some cases, a few of the vertebrae, which should be separated from each other during the development of the spine and there should be discs between them, remain adhered to each other from a region. Since the vertebrae, which cannot continue to grow from the attached part, will grow from the free part, a curvature will occur again.

Congenital scoliosis can manifest itself in more than one vertebra in some cases. In rare cases, it is possible to see more than one type in more than one vertebra.

Congenital Scoliosis Symptoms

Although congenital scoliosis is most often diagnosed during postnatal checkups, it can sometimes manifest itself in the later stages of the baby’s development. Early diagnosis is of great importance as it progresses rapidly and certain congenital scoliosis symptoms are as follows:

  • uneven shoulders
  • One hip being significantly lower or higher than the other
  • Imbalance of the shoulder blades in the forward bending position
  • short or stiff neck
  • Lack or adhesion of the ribs Hairiness and/or dimples in the back area
  • Lumps on the hump or back
  • Heart, Kidney, intestinal esophagus etc organ problems

Congenital Scoliosis Treatment

Since congenital scoliosis progresses rapidly and is usually detected at an early age, the treatment process differs from idiopathic scoliosis. For the treatment of congenital scoliosis, age, type of deformity and growth rate of the curvature are the main factors shaping the treatment. While the age of the patient determines which surgical or non-surgical treatment method will be chosen, it also includes the developmental process of the child. Whether the lung and chest development is complete or not changes the shape of the surgical method. However, scoliosis can grow rapidly during the age of 5 and adolescence, which are periods of rapid growth.

The type of deformity will change the shape of the surgical procedure to be applied. In addition, since the bone itself is the problem in congenital scoliosis cases and the problem area does not move much anyway, corset and scoliosis physical therapy movements generally have a low response rate. However, a corset can be applied to the balancing curvatures that occur in the lower and upper parts of the curvatures, in order to stop the progression of these curvatures.

Although curvatures do not progress at early ages, potential progression rates are another factor that determines the treatment process. During periods of rapid growth, scoliosis that did not grow before may show rapid growth.

Congenital Scoliosis Surgery

The treatment is related to the type of deformity and the age of the patient, as mentioned before. When the patient reaches the appropriate age, different surgical treatment options are available. If the child is still in the developmental period, it is possible to treat it with extendable rods so that it does not interfere with the development of the chest. Since the rods are grown following the appropriate growth stages, they do not pose a problem for their development.

Another method involves removing the underdeveloped vertebra and replacing it with a supporting material. In this way, the imbalance caused by the development of the vertebrae and scoliosis caused by the imbalance are largely eliminated. The same procedure can be applied to the attached vertebrae. The purpose of all these procedures is to correct the curve in the spine and to ensure that the muscles around the spine apply the same force to each area.


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