01/12/2022
Breast Cancer

Types of breast cancer by appearance under the microscope – 2022

breast cancer

Types of breast cancer by appearance under the microscope

Invasive breast cancer: It is the most common type of breast cancer. So much so that “breast cancer” and “invasive breast cancer” are used as synonyms.

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Common Types of Breast Cancer – Mayo Clinic

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Lobular carcinoma in situ – LCIS

It is the abnormality of the cells in the lobules where milk production begins in the breast. It is not cancer. Being diagnosed with LCIS means you have an increased risk of developing breast cancer in the future. However, most women with LCIS will not develop breast cancer. LCIS ​​does not show itself on mammography and usually does not cause any complaints. It is frequently encountered in biopsies performed for various reasons or when the piece taken after breast surgery is examined under a microscope. Since many women with LCIS will not develop breast cancer, there is no need to treat it as soon as it is detected. Instead, active follow-up with breast examination every 6-12 months and mammography performed annually is recommended.

Types of breast cancer by appearance under the microscope

Invasive breast cancer

It is the most common type of breast cancer. So much so that “breast cancer” and “invasive breast cancer” are used as synonyms. Invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are the most common subtypes.

  • Invasive (or infiltrative) ductal carcinoma: 8 out of 10 breast cancers are of this type. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) begins in the cells lining the milk ducts of the breast and spreads to the adipose tissue inside the breast. At this point, it has the potential to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body via blood or lymph.
  • Invasive (or infiltrative) lobular carcinoma: Invasive lobular carcinoma begins in the milk-producing glands. Like IDC, it can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Detecting invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography is more difficult than with IDC.
Inflammatory breast cancer

It constitutes 1-4% of breast cancers. The reason why it is called inflammatory is the formation of a widespread inflammatory appearance in the breast. What causes this inflammatory appearance is when cancer cells block small lymph vessels in the breast. As a result of widespread inflammation in the breast, a swollen, red, hard and warm breast tissue occurs. Inflammatory breast cancer symptoms and signs can occur quickly. Since the complaints and symptoms are very similar, it can be confused with a breast infection (mastitis). A breast infection called mastitis is not common in those who are not breastfeeding or pregnant, and is also very rare after menopause; Also, mastitis responds well to antibiotic therapy. Treatment for inflammatory breast cancer is slightly different from other breast cancers. As a standard, treatment begins with chemotherapy. Patients who respond well to treatment are evaluated for surgical suitability. Post-surgical radiotherapy is applied to prevent regional recurrence of the disease. In addition, hormonal therapy and targeted therapies can be applied according to the biological and genetic characteristics of breast cancer.

Paget’s disease

Another disease associated with breast cancer is Paget’s Disease. It occurs in 1 to 4 of every 100 breast cancers. Paget’s Disease begins on the nipple or in the dark area around the nipple (areola). It first starts as a red, scaly rash and can be itchy. If left untreated or itchy, it can bleed, turn into an ulcerated sore, and crust over. It is very similar in appearance to psoriasis or eczema, so it can be diagnosed late. The diagnosis of Paget’s disease is made by surgically taking a small sample (biopsy) of the affected tissue. If a diagnosis of Paget’s Disease is made as a result of the biopsy, your doctor will order a mammogram. Because in many patients, Paget’s Disease may be a sign of cancer formation in the breast tissue behind the nipple.

What is the treatment for Paget’s Disease: The entire breast or the affected area can be surgically removed. Subsequent treatment is determined by whether or not invasive breast cancer is detected in the breast tissue.

 

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