Symptoms and degrees of scoliosis
Depending on the severity of spinal deformity, there are 4 degrees of scoliosis. The exact degree is established by X-ray or MRI images with the…
Causes of scoliosis
1. Congenital causes of curvature of the spine include violations of normal intrauterine development, which leads to underdevelopment of the vertebrae, the formation of wedge-shaped and additional vertebrae, and other pathologies.
2. Acquired causes are: incorrect body position due to the physiological characteristics of a person (flat feet, different leg lengths, weakness of the back muscles), diseases (rickets, poliomyelitis, sciatica), as well as injuries, improperly established habits, poor posture.
Children’s scoliosis in most cases is associated with intensive phases of growth and uneven distribution of the load on the spine.
Symptoms and degrees of scoliosis
Depending on the severity of spinal deformity, there are 4 degrees of scoliosis. The exact degree is established by X-ray or MRI images with the measurement of the angle of curvature.
Scoliosis of the 1st degree (angle of deformation up to 10°). When viewed from behind in a standing position, the asymmetric position of the shoulder blades and shoulder girdle is determined. The lower angle of the scapula is located higher on the curved side. There is a slight displacement of the spinous processes at the height of the deformation. The triangles of the waist are asymmetrical (the space in the form of a triangle between the arm and the waist), on the curved side it is smaller. When leaning forward, a muscle roller appears, which indicates a slight rotation of the vertebrae.
With scoliosis of the 2nd degree (the angle of deformation according to Chaklin is up to 25°), an S-shaped curvature of the spine is formed in the form of a main and compensatory arch with the formation of a costal hump. When viewed from behind, the asymmetry of the shoulder girdle, shoulder blades and triangles of the waist is more pronounced. The lower edge of the scapula on the curved side lags behind the chest, the pelvis is skewed.
For grade 3 scoliosis (angle of curvature up to 50°) is characterized by S-shaped deformity of the spine with shortening of the trunk, deformity of the chest. On the curved side, a rib hump is formed in the direction of the main deformity, the trunk deviates from the vertical axis of the spine. There is a pronounced skew of the pelvis and a relative shortening of the leg from the side of the arched chest.
4th degree of scoliosis (angle of curvature more than 50°) – characterized by severe S-shaped deformity of the spine and chest, the trunk deviates towards the main arc.
In addition to the pathology of the spine, scoliosis develops pathological changes in the organs of the chest (myocardial dystrophy, cor pulmonale), and there is a deterioration in the general condition.
Therefore, the main type of prevention of such complications is the early detection and treatment of patients with scoliosis.
Types of scoliosis
Depending on the location of the apex of the curvature of the spine axis, scoliosis can be divided into:
- upper chest,
- thoracic (most common)
- combined (has two peaks of curvature).
To determine the existence of scoliosis, you need to ask the child to stand with his back to you and relax (let him take a typical posture for him).
First of all, you need to pay attention to the following main symptoms of scoliosis:
- one of the shoulder blades sticks out a little (the corner of the shoulder blade sticks out)
- different distance from the hand pressed to the side to the waist
- one shoulder slightly higher than the other
- When leaning forward, the curvature of the spine is noticeable.
The diagnosis of posture disorder is made during a routine examination, but in some cases, x-rays are used.
With significant deformations, a rib hump arises, the pelvis warps, wedge-shaped vertebrae appear, and the development of internal organs is hindered.
Prevention of scoliosis consists in the formation of correct posture skills in children, strengthening the muscular corset, timely detection and elimination of the initial signs of scoliosis and posture disorders.
The most effective method of treating scoliosis is physiotherapy, which allows strengthening the muscular corset of the spine, correcting the vertebrae with the help of the correct distribution of muscle strength and restoring the balance of muscle tone.
Kinesitherapy (kinesis – movement + therapia – treatment; movement treatment) is a type of exercise therapy that has shown high efficiency in the treatment of scoliosis. Its difference from ordinary physical education is that the sets of exercises for the treatment of scoliosis are performed on special anti-gravity simulators, which allow you to remove the load from the vertebrae and train the necessary parts of the spine.
Kinesitherapy does not apply compression pressure on the vertebrae, it allows you to purposefully train the necessary muscle groups to correct the curvature of the spine and strengthens the deep muscles of the back, which maintain the correct posture for a long time.
A set of kinesitherapy exercises is selected for each patient individually, taking into account his age, the degree of scoliotic deformity, type and location, the presence of one or more arcs of curvature.
Also, for the treatment of scoliosis, the work of internal organs is evaluated – the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, indications and possible contraindications for treatment with this method are established.
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