09/12/2022
Scoliosis

Static scoliosis – 2022

scoliosis

Static scoliosis

We speak of static scoliosis when at the base of the mechanism we find the discrepancy of the lower limbs.

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What is scoliosis

As the Treccani encyclopedia states, “scoliosis indicates a permanent lateral deviation of the spine” read the full definition (3). The “permanent” is fundamental, it is necessary to know that there are different types of scoliosis that are enclosed in two groups represented by structured scoliosis, where there is a dysmorphism, and by unstructured scoliosis, where there is a paramorphism.

However, it is good to know that when we talk about scoliosis, we are referring to structured, irreversible scoliosis, which differs from unstructured because of the possibility of the latter being reversible.

Structured scoliosis

When we talk about structured scoliosis, we are talking about real scoliosis, where we must fight to limit its progression. True scoliosis has the following characteristics:

  • Torsion and rotation of the vertebrae along its own longitudinal axis, especially the vertebrae apex of the curve (vertebra which is located in the center of the scoliotic curve and which exhibits greater rotation);
  • Alterations of nearby muscular and ligament structures;
  • The vertebrae at the ends of the curve are the vertebrae with the most inclined vertebral plate and do not exhibit rotation.

In vertebral torsion we see that the vertebral bodies move towards the convex side of the curve, while the spinous processes towards the concave side of the curve. If present in the thoracic segment, the rotation of the vertebrae is followed by the ribs which will form a hump on the side of the vertebral rotation and therefore of the convexity of the curve.

Structured scoliosis can have different causes. In most cases it is idiopathic scoliosis, but we can also find static scoliosis and malformative scoliosis.

Idiopathic scoliosis

Idiopathic scoliosis occurs in 80% of cases. The term idiopathic means of unknown etiology. We don’t know why scoliosis formed. This scoliosis is observed mostly in the female sex and is thought to have a genetic ground, it is often found in subjects belonging to the same family unit.

It occurs mainly during the pubertal period where excessive and rapid growth of the subject occurred. Generally it presents in an italic S, but it is possible to witness a C or double S scoliosis (5-6). The precocity of its onset leads to an often unfavorable prognosis. Read the article dedicated to idiopathic scoliosis.

Static scoliosis

We speak of static scoliosis when at the base of the mechanism we find the discrepancy of the lower limbs. This discrepancy finds its causes in a fracture or in a hemi-hypertrophy. By dwelling on the fracture in the child, a traumatic event could excessively stimulate the function of his bone growth metaphyses, thus causing abnormal growth compared to the healthy limb.

Malformative scoliosis

We are talking about malformative scoliosis, scoliosis of a secondary nature, that is, which find their cause in genetic diseases that often do not lead to a malformation of the structure of the spine itself. It usually has individual characteristics and is often accompanied by ligamentous hyperlaxity. They are characterized by the presence of vertebral malformations, the vertebrae lose their symmetry (epispondili). Losing their symmetry, they will not allow correct support for the vertebrae above, which will be inclined. Often these types of scoliosis are found at birth.

Unstructured scoliosis

In unstructured scoliosis, vertebral rotation is not present, we only have a lateral deviation of the vertebrae (4). In this case we are not talking about dysmorphism as in structured scoliosis, but about paramorphism. When we talk about unstructured scoliosis, we are referring to the term so well known and used, or scoliotic attitude.

Often the types of scoliosis that fall within the unstructured, cause many and unnecessary alarmism. These scoliosis are not considered diseases and have a very good prognostic index (there is no evolution in a structured scoliosis).

 

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