Skin Tumors

Skin Tumors: Melanoma (Skin cancer) – 2022

Skin Tumors

Skin Tumors: Melanoma (Skin cancer)

Melanoma (or skin cancer) is the most common cancer that is increasingly common in patients of all ages.

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MELANOMA (skin cancer)

Melanoma (or skin cancer) is the most common cancer that is increasingly common in patients of all ages.

The disease develops through pigmented skin cells – melanocytes, as well as from birthmarks (they are often called pigmented nevi). This type of oncology is characterized by rapid development, and in the later stages – damage to internal organs. That is why it is very important to detect tumors in time and choose the right treatment tactics to help the patient get rid of the disease forever.

You can suspect the disease by detecting asymmetric pigmentation. And only after a biopsy accurately make the final diagnosis. Neoplasms are removed by surgery, by excision.

Skin cancer usually develops in people whose relatives have suffered from this disease. Development is influenced by external factors. This type of pathology accounts for 10 percent of all benign skin lesions. In people in the age group of 15 to 39 years, the pathology ranks 3rd in frequency among all cancers. In 80 percent of cases, the disease develops due to excessive insolation. It is very important to identify the health problem as early as possible and get tested, depending on the outcome of therapy.


Skin cancer can arise de novo or be formed from an acquired or congenital non-cellular nevus. Tumor at the site of a large nevus is often formed in adolescence.

Melanoma at the site of congenital nevi is formed more often, which indicates an increased risk of recurrence of cancer. The main sign of nevus degeneration is its asymmetry.

Asymmetry can be manifested by the following signs:

  • Dapple.
  • Uneven shape.
  • Uneven structures.
  • Uneven borders.

For example, on one nevus it is possible to observe different shades of color:

  • Light brown.
  • White.
  • Blue.
  • Black.
  • Red.
  • Dark brown.

Symptoms of late-stage melanoma of the skin are manifested by bleeding from the tumor, but this may be preceded by irritation, discoloration of the mole or change in the size of the nevus. These changes are reflected in special questionnaires with 5 and 7 points and ABCD rules. Also, melanoma of the skin in the late stages may have the following symptoms:

  • Bleeding.
  • Itching.
  • Pain syndrome.
  • Pigmentation of the skin.

Superficial melanoma is characterized by slow growth of the mole over several years. Rapid growth is characteristic of a nodular tumor. This type of oncology is characterized by tissue fragility and a predisposition to skin ulcers at the site of the tumor.

Malignant lentigo or Hutchinson’s freckles are often diagnosed in the elderly. Another type of tumor is peripheral lentigo, usually diagnosed in people with dark skin and at later stages, as this type of cancer develops in hard-to-reach places, such as the foot.

It is important to understand that as soon as negative symptoms develop, you should immediately contact a good medical center. Proper diagnosis must be made and effective treatment prescribed.


Signs of skin melanoma differ from the characteristic manifestations of other types of oncology. The following external symptoms will help to recognize early skin cancer:

  • The main thing is asymmetry: irregular shape.
  • Limitations: fuzzy, arcuate uneven edge.
  • Color: lack of uniformity of color, there are light and dark, in some cases almost black shades.
  • Diameter: more than 5 mm.
  • Elevation of the tumor more than 1 mm above the normal level of the skin surface.

In addition to the above features also distinguish:

  • Spontaneous appearance of pigment spots on previously clean skin in people over 35 – 40 years.
  • Signs of growth.
  • Rapid growth of pigmentation.
  • Inflammation of the mole.
  • Wetting the inflamed area.
  • Bleeding pigment spots.
  • Itching and burning of the pigment spot.

Problematic in diagnosis are the occurrence of melanoma under the nails on the hands and feet. Melanoma, which has an uncharacteristic black and brown color, also remains undetected for a long time. Moles that meet one or more of the above symptoms should be surgically removed with subsequent histology.

It is also better to get rid of those moles that are located in places of frequent trauma (eg, pants belt, bra, etc.). After all, trauma to moles can provoke their degeneration into a malignant neoplasm. You need to take care of your health, especially if you have had frequent sunburns. Ultraviolet light is a major factor in the development of skin cancer. Therefore, in the presence of numerous moles on the body, from sunbathing in the open air and in the solarium, it is recommended to give up.

Often patients see an oncologist at the stage of metastasis. Tumor of the skin gives many metastases that develop rapidly. That is why it is so important to conduct early diagnosis and prevention of pathology, which includes the detection of life-threatening moles.


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