09/12/2022
Skin Tumors

Skin Tumors: Basic Methods Of Diagnosis – 2022

skin tumors

Skin Tumors: Basic Methods Of Diagnosis

First of all, doctors perform dermatoscopy – a painless digital examination of the skin due to optical magnification. Skin tumors

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2016: Benign Skin Tumor: Diagnosis & Managemnet Made Simple

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What Is Skin Cancer?

It is a mutation in the skin with more aggressive growth potential and no general structural constraints due to many factors, including sun damage, family history (genetics), exposure to certain chemicals and foods.

Malignant skin tumors rank second in the structure of cancer. According to the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer are registered annually.

The incidence rate of skin cancer in Ukraine in 2018 among men is 37.8 per 100,000 population (first place among all malignant neoplasms), and among women – 45.5 per 100,000 population (second place after breast cancer).

70% of non-melanoma skin cancers are “basal cell skin cancer”.

Risk Factors:

  • Harmful effects of UV radiation.
  • Harmful chemicals and food (arsenic, pottery, cleaning chemicals, asbestos; fiberglass, chemotherapy; smoking).
  • Blue eyes (type 1, 2, Fitzpatrick’s skin).
  • Family history of skin cancer and melanoma.
  • Exposure in the workplace (sun or chemicals).
  • Immunodeficiency.
  • Organ transplantation.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.

PRE-CANCER CONDITION is a disorder of cell morphology that is associated with an increased risk of cancer.

Such conditions usually include dysplasia or benign neoplasia.

Precancerous skin diseases develop due to the influence of (often complex) various factors: physical (insolation, radiation); chemical (industrial carcinogens); viral (papillomavirus, etc.); genetic (burdened heredity); immune (immunodeficiency states), etc.

I. Obligated precancerous conditions are neoplasms of the skin, which always acquire malignant course: Bowen disease, Keira erythroplasia, Paget’s disease, intrapermal epithelioma of Yadasson, late radial dermatitis, pigmented xerodermus, cheaillets.

ІІ. Optional precancerous conditions are skin diseases, from which, under the condition of timely treatment of skin neoplasm with malignant course, rarely sprayed: verticiform epidermisplasia, actin keratosis, skin horn, keratoacanthoma, carcinoid pipylomatosis, gigantic, giganotic, gigantic, gigantic. gub.

Malignant Skin Tumors:

Histological skin cancer distinguishes two main forms of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma) and squamous cell carcinoma.

A. BASALIOMA

Basal cell carcinoma accounts for up to 70% of all skin cancers and is localized mainly on the skin. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin – a small nodule or plaque of yellow or gray-pink color (matte or pearlescent skin). Over time, the center of the tumor is submerged, often appear telangiectasia, foci of depigmentation; then there is a cover with skin ulcers and disintegration of a tumor. The bottom of the ulcer is funnel-shaped and covered with a gray scab, the edges in the form of a roller. In running cases, the destruction zone occupies large areas.

The course of basal cell carcinoma: long, torpid. The tumor does not metastasize. Local-destructive growth – in the common stage or during relapse is characterized by the destruction of underlying cartilage, bones, germination in neighboring cavities (nasal cavity, mouth, destruction of the cartilage of the auricle).

B. PLANO CELL CELL

Squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid cancer, spinalioma) is a malignant epithelial tumor that can metastasize, consisting of atypical cells resembling elements of the spiny layer of epithelium. The predominant localization is the skin of the face, the back of the nose, the chin arch, the auricles.

Squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid cancer, spinalioma) is a malignant epithelial tumor that can metastasize, consisting of atypical cells resembling elements of the spiny layer of epithelium. The predominant localization is the skin of the face, the back of the nose, the chin arch, the auricles.

Factors causing development: insolation, prolonged contact with chemical carcinogens, thermal burns, radiation. Pathological anatomy: microscopically – with keratinization and without keratinization. Squamous cell carcinoma without keratinization is less differentiated. Routes of metastasis: mainly lymphogenic.

The degree of malignancy of the tumor:

  • Differentiated cancer (severe keratinization and “pearls”);
  • Poorly differentiated cancer (mild keratinization);
  • Undifferentiated cancer (no signs of keratinization).

Methods Of Treatment Of Skin Cancer

The choice of treatment is determined by the stage of the process, its localization and is carried out using radiological, surgical, chemotherapeutic methods:

  • radiation methods (the main methods in the treatment of malignant tumors of the face, at stages t1, t2 radiation treatment is carried out in the form of near-focus radiotherapy, at stage t3 combined treatment is used);
  • surgical interventions;
  • electroexcision, laser excision, cryodestruction;
  • at metastasis – the corresponding lymphadenectomy is performed;
  • chemotherapy for skin cancer (topical chemotherapy – in the form of ointments (prednisolone 5%, fluorouracil 5%, prospidin 30% or 50%), systemic chemotherapy – by introducing cytostatics (bleomycin, prospidin intravenously, methotrexate intravenously) into complex compounds of platinum /in).

Priority Preventive Measures:

  1. Protect yourself from ultraviolet light.
  2. See a doctor if you notice a red spot on the skin of the face, neck or arms; growth of pink color with crusts in the center; shiny knot of mother-of-pearl color; open ulcer or erosion that does not heal within 4 weeks; area with a shiny surface and fuzzy contours.

Prevention of skin cancer consists in timely diagnosis and active treatment of precancerous skin lesions, dissemination of knowledge among the population about the dangerous consequences of exposure to excessive sunlight and methods of photoprotection, as well as clinical signs of the disease.

Tumors of the skin are visual forms, which allows most patients to diagnose this pathology in the early stages of development and detect it during cancer screening.

Basic Methods Of Diagnosis

First of all, doctors perform dermatoscopy – a painless digital examination of the skin due to optical magnification.

In case of doubtful external signs, a biopsy (minimal excision of the tumor) and clinical or histological examination are performed.

If there is evidence of a tumor process, mandatory (chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound) or additional (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, radioisotope, etc.) examination methods are prescribed.

For further treatment planning, laboratory tests are performed (general analysis of blood, urine, blood group determination, etc.).

 

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