Nutrition: The safety of the food you consume also depends on you – 2022


Nutrition: The safety of the food you consume also depends on you

Labels advice healthy nutrition nutritionist florence. Foods have always contained and will always contain, in addition to the nutrients

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Nutrition: Introduction to Vitamins – Genetics | Lecturio


Consume alcoholic beverages in controlled quantities

Alcoholic advice healthy nutrition nutritionist florence Alcoholic beverages are made up mostly of water, and the remainder of ethyl alcohol (or ethanol). Ethanol is a toxic substance for the body. Ethanol is then metabolized by the human body not according to the real organic needs, as happens for nutrients, but with the sole purpose of being neutralized and eliminated. The human body is in fact mostly able to withstand ethanol without obvious damage as long as it remains within the limits of moderate consumption.

Although not a nutrient, ethanol provides a large amount of calories.

Ethanol is already absorbed in the first portions of the gastrointestinal tract and, in modest proportions, even in the mouth. Absorption is slower in the presence of food, faster in the presence of carbon dioxide (soda, sparkling wines and other fizzy drinks). Once absorbed, ethanol enters the bloodstream.

Metabolization of ethanol occurs at both the gastric and hepatic levels. The enzyme present in the stomach (alcohol dehydrogenase) metabolizes ethanol before it is absorbed and reaches the blood, and therefore the entire body. The enzymes present in the liver, on the other hand, only act after the ethanol has entered the bloodstream and has therefore had the opportunity to exert its effects.
It can be deduced that drinking alcohol on a full stomach is better because it causes ethanol to be absorbed more slowly and decreases the amount that enters the bloodstream.

The concentration of ethanol in the blood depends on various factors: amount ingested, method of consumption (fasting or with a meal), body composition, weight, sex, genetic factors, amount of body water, individual ability to metabolize alcohol, habits ‘alcohol. Women, having a lower weight, lower amounts of body water and lower efficiency of alcohol metabolization mechanisms, are more vulnerable to its effects and, for the same consumption, have a higher alcohol level (alcohol present in the blood).

So, how to behave?

If you wish to consume alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation, with meals or, in any case, immediately before or after eating.
Of all alcoholic beverages, give preference to those with a low alcohol content (wine and beer).
Completely avoid alcohol intake during childhood, adolescence, pregnancy and breastfeeding, reduce it if you are elderly.
Do not consume alcoholic beverages if you have to drive cars or use delicate or dangerous equipment for yourself or others, and therefore you need to keep intact attention, self-criticism and motor coordination.
If you take any medications (including non-prescription medications), avoid or reduce alcohol consumption unless you have obtained explicit permission from your doctor.
Reduce or eliminate the intake of alcoholic beverages if you are overweight or obese or if you have a family history of diabetes, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia.

Vary your choices at the table often

Diet advice healthy nutrition nutritionist florence A healthy and balanced diet is achieved by choosing at least an adequate amount (portion) of a food for each food group every day, also taking care to habitually vary the choices within each individual group.

The food groups are 5:

  1. Group of cereals, derivatives and tubers: bread, pasta, rice, corn, oats, barley, spelled, potatoes. Whole foods, richer in fiber, should often be used among the foods of this group.
  2. Vegetable group, fresh legumes, fruit. Among the foods of this group it is advisable to use seasonal foods.
  3. Milk and derivatives group: milk, yogurt, dairy products, cheeses. Within the group, semi-skimmed milk, dairy products and less fat cheeses are preferred.
  4. Meat, fish, eggs, dried legumes group. Within the group, lean meats and fish are preferred. On the other hand, as regards quantity, the consumption of products with a higher fat content, such as certain types of meat and sausages, should be moderate. Finally, for eggs, an acceptable consumption for healthy subjects is that of one egg twice a week.
  5. Seasoning fats group: extra virgin olive oil, seed oil (fats of vegetable origin), butter, cream, lard, lard (fats of animal origin). Vegetable origin fats are preferred, in particular extra virgin olive oil.

9. Special tips for special people

special people advice healthy nutrition nutritionist florence In the universe of normal consumers there are some categories that must be considered more “at risk” of nutritional deficiencies, not due to disease and not necessarily due to bad habits, but simply for particular situations related to their age or to peculiar physiological conditions. These people have some specific needs which are important to know and which need to be addressed carefully.

How to behave in pregnancy?
  • Avoid excessive weight gains and be careful to cover your increased needs in protein, calcium, iron, folate and water: therefore regularly consume fish, lean meats, eggs, milk and derivatives and a wide variety of vegetables and fruit.
  • In particular, throughout the fertile age, take care that your folate intake covers your needs. This will reduce the risk of neural tube changes (spina bifida) in the fetus.
  • Do not consume raw or undercooked foods of animal origin and do not drink alcoholic beverages.
How to behave while breastfeeding?
  • While breastfeeding, your nutritional needs are even higher than those of pregnancy: a varied diet, rich in water, fresh vegetables, fish, milk and derivatives, will help you feel good and produce milk that is completely suited to the needs of the newborn.
  • Avoid those foods that can give your milk unpleasant odors or tastes or trigger allergic-type manifestations in the infant.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages and use products containing nerve substances (coffee, tea, cocoa, cola drinks) with caution.
How to behave in menopause?
  • Take advantage of the possible increased availability of free time to practice greater physical activity and to take care of your diet: learn never to unbalance your diet and remember that, since every food has its own specific role in the context of daily nutrition, you must never indiscriminately eliminate entire food groups in favor of others.
  • Do not overdo it with milk and cheese, despite their high calcium content; prefer semi-skimmed milk and, among cheeses, choose those with a lower fat and salt content.
  • Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables every day.
  • Preferably use extra virgin olive oil.
  • Remember that even in menopause, overweight and obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, constipation, cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse are important risk factors.
What to do if you are under 12?

Eat breakfast, divide your diet appropriately throughout the day, and choose vegetables and fruit more frequently.
Avoid overindulging in the consumption of sweet foods and carbonated drinks, and indulge too often in the typical American fast-food dishes.
Dedicate at least 1 hour a day to physical activity and movement.

What to do if you are aged between 12 and 18?

Avoid adopting particularly unbalanced and monotonous eating patterns just because they are “in fashion”.
Pay particular attention, especially if you are a girl, to cover your increased needs in iron and calcium: follow some trends in vogue among young people that lead to excluding from the diet foods such as meat and fish (excellent sources of iron) and milk and derivatives (excellent sources of calcium) makes this coverage and that of vitamin B12 very difficult.

What to do if you are over 75?
  • Strive to systematically consume a varied and palatable diet.
  • Avoid too frequent use of cold meals, pre-cooked or reheated dishes.
  • Choose foods based on the conditions of your chewing system and prepare them appropriately: mince meats, grate or mash ripe fruit, prepare soups, purees and smoothies, choose a soft bread or soften it in liquid.
  • Avoid heavy meals and divide your diet on several occasions throughout the day.
  • Have a good breakfast including milk or yogurt.
  • Maintain an acceptable body weight, continuing to maintain a good level of motor activity and avoiding abusing fatty toppings and sweets.
  • Reduce animal fats, choose fish and alternative meats frequently (chicken, turkey, rabbit), do not overdo it with cheeses.
  • Consume fresh legumes, fruits and vegetables often.
  • Do not exceed with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and with the addition of table salt.

The safety of the food you consume also depends on you

Labels advice healthy nutrition nutritionist florence. Foods have always contained and will always contain, in addition to the nutrients our body needs, potentially toxic substances or agents (additives, environmental contaminants, microbiological contaminants).
To lower the food risk to a level that guarantees sufficient safety for consumption, the consumer is responsible for the purchase, control and correct use of the food he consumes. He must be aware and informed correctly, learn to read and interpret the labels, know the purchased product and how to keep it well, know how to handle it in the kitchen and consume it at the table in order to protect himself and his family from any risks.

So, how to behave?
  • Vary your food choices, also to reduce the risk of repeatedly ingesting foreign substances present in food, which can be harmful.
  • In particular, for the elderly, infants, children and pregnant women, it is necessary to completely avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked animal foods (undercooked eggs or sauces based on raw eggs, rare meat, raw fish, fruits raw seafood).
  • Pay attention to home preserves (especially in oil or brine), which must be prepared in compliance with scrupulous hygiene rules; never taste a suspicious preserve.
  • Do not let cooked food cool out of the refrigerator for too long and without covering it. It should be placed in the refrigerator no later than 2 hours after cooking (1 hour in summer). When using leftovers, reheat them until they are very hot inside as well.
  • Do not defrost food of animal origin at room temperature. If you can’t cook them yourself, put them in the refrigerator in advance or put them to defrost in the microwave.
  • Avoid contact between different foods in the refrigerator by storing leftovers in closed containers, the eggs in their original container.
  • Do not have excessive confidence in the refrigerator’s ability to store your food for too long: it does not carry out any reclamation action and does not preserve food forever.


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