05/12/2022
Breast Cancer

Diagnosis of breast cancer – 2022

breast cancer

Diagnosis of breast cancer

Diagnosis of breast cancer in most cases does not cause difficulties, since this disease belongs to the so-called. “Cancer of external localizations”.

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Diagnosis of breast cancer

Diagnosis of breast cancer in most cases does not cause difficulties, since this disease belongs to the so-called. “Cancer of external localizations”.

Examination and palpation of the mammary glands are important techniques to understand the size, structure, location and a number of other signs of tumor formations in the mammary gland.

The doctor may prescribe additional examinations

Ultrasound of the mammary glands. A study using an ultrasonic sensor, which allows you to evaluate the structure of breast tissue and determine pathological formations. Ultrasound is also used during a biopsy to obtain more accurate results when collecting cells or tissues.
Mammography. X-ray examination of the mammary glands. It is especially important in terms of screening – the examination of healthy women without breast cancer symptoms, but is also the main method of diagnosis. With the help of mammography, it is possible to identify pathological formations in the mammary glands and indirectly judge their nature. During the description of mammograms, the standardized Bi-RADS algorithm is used, which, with a greater or lesser probability, makes it possible to classify the identified formations as potentially malignant.

With the help of mammography, a targeted biopsy is also performed

MRI of the mammary glands. Appointed to clarify the nature of a previously discovered formation. It has an advantage in breast evaluation in women at high risk of hereditary cancer (for example, in the presence of identified mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes).
Core biopsy. Taking a sample of the identified formation using a special needle, which is inserted into the tumor under the control of ultrasound and / or mammography. Based on the material obtained, a histological examination is performed to confirm the diagnosis, as well as a special immunohistochemical study, which allows you to determine a number of important parameters – for example, the sensitivity of the tumor to hormone therapy and targeted therapy.

Fine needle aspiration biopsy. Performed with suspected involvement of the lymph nodes. After receiving the material, it is subjected to a cytological examination, which allows to identify malignant cells.

Osteoscintigraphy. The study allows you to assess the condition of the skeleton, since breast cancer often metastasizes to the bones.
Additional studies may be ordered to determine the prevalence of the disease. For example, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rule out distant metastasis. Determining the stage of cancer development is necessary for the doctor to select the most appropriate treatment.

Histological examination. Analysis of tissue obtained during a biopsy. It is essential for making a diagnosis. It is also carried out after surgical treatment, which allows you to more accurately determine the stage of the process. If chemotherapy was performed before surgery, histological examination allows determining the response of the tumor to the treatment, which is an important prognostic sign.
Immunohistochemical study (IHC). A type of morphological diagnostics that allows you to evaluate the expression of various receptors on the surface of tumor cells. In breast cancer, a number of parameters are necessarily determined: estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, Her2\neu overexpression and Ki-67 proliferative activity index.

Molecular genetic study. Allows more accurate determination of the presence of overexpression of the Her2\neu gene in cases where, according to the IHC data, it is not possible to accurately determine the status of this most important marker.

 

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