Dental: How can gingival diseases be prevented?
As can be seen, it is of great importance for all people to start dental check-ups in infancy, and to continue regularly at least twice a year.
1) Which is the most common gingival disease?
Gum diseases are expressed as inflammatory diseases that affect the tissues that serve to support the teeth.
In addition to being one of the most common diseases affecting humanity, gingival diseases are not known exactly what gingival diseases are and what they can cause in Turkey and in many countries around the world. Among the gingival diseases, there are 2 different gingival diseases with the highest incidence. These; simple gum diseases and periodontitis.
2 ) Gingivitis (simple gum disease)
Gingivitis (simple gum disease) refers to the group of gum diseases that occur when oral hygiene is not sufficient. It is also an inflammatory disease that is limited at the gingival level. The most important reason for the occurrence of gum disease is the sticky and colorless film layer that accumulates on the teeth, which is expressed as “bacterial dental plaque”. However, only the bacterial plaque does not have an effect on the occurrence of gingivitis; Periods of hormonal imbalances such as the use of various drugs (nifedipine, phenytoin, cyclosporin A, etc.), pregnancy, puberty or menopause are also considered to have an effect.
It is possible to heal gingivitis caused by bacterial plaque with the cleaning of the tooth surface applied by the doctor and regular controls to be applied every 6 months. However, of course, the most important factor on recovery is the correct and regular personal oral care that the person has made a habit of. When all these factors are realized, gingivitis can heal very easily.
3) What is periodontitis?
Unlike gingivitis, it is an inflammatory disease that causes damage to the root of the tooth, the bone surrounding the tooth root, and the connective tissue between these two tissues. A periodontal pocket appears between the tooth and the gingiva. In other words, it is more like an advanced form of untreated gingivitis. Even if periodontitis is a chronic disease, the rate of progression can sometimes increase. When it reaches levels that disturb more patients, the disease has existed for a long time and unfortunately caused an advanced level of damage. If the disease is advanced, abscess formation can be seen in the gingiva. Patients mostly think of this as an inflammatory condition caused by the tooth, and go to the dentist with pain.
There are 2 types of periodontitis. These; Chronic periodontitis and Aggressive periodontitis.
4) Chronic periodontitis
It occurs at various levels in the society at a rate of 85% and mostly in people older than 35 years of age. It develops itself because gingivitis caused by bacterial plaque and calculus problems is not treated. The diagnosis of chronic periodontitis can be made as a result of clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. In clinical appearance, the gingiva has lost its pinkish color, it is darker red in color, swollen and can bleed very easily. It is also noticed that it causes advanced bone loss in radiography (dental x-ray).
5) Aggressive periodontitis
Unlike chronic periodontitis, it progresses faster and independently of the local effect of the bacterial plaque, affecting the patient in adolescence and young adult and even pre-adolescent period.
The most important aspect is that it can progress to such an extent that it can cause tooth loss at very early ages. As a result of the researches, it shows that this disease can be passed on genetically, and therefore, people who lost their teeth due to gum disease at an early age in their families should definitely be under the control of a dentist regularly.
With various microbiological evaluations, it can be noticed whether people are predisposed to this disease. With early diagnosis, it is of great importance in preventing early tooth loss in this disease. This disease does not only cause premature loss of teeth. It can also cause loss of bone surrounding the teeth. This may cause difficulties in implant (tooth extraction) and prosthesis applications in the future.
6) What is the treatment of gum diseases?
In the treatment of aggressive periodontitis, tooth extraction or extraction of one of the roots of the teeth was used in the past; Today, with the use of antibiotics, it is possible to clean the root surfaces of the teeth. For this reason, the teeth can return to their old healthy appearance. In this first stage, which is called the initial treatment, all tartar and inflamed tooth root surfaces are cleaned and smoothed under the gingiva and on the tooth surfaces. Apart from this, if there are any overflow fillings, they should definitely be replaced, and the decayed teeth should definitely be treated. As a result of this initial treatment, gingival bleeding is considerably reduced and the gingiva approaches its normal form in terms of consistency and color. If the gingival disease is not treated at the beginning, the bone tissue around the tooth roots begins to be lost in a short time. When more than a certain amount of bone loss is experienced, the teeth begin to move and wobble from their position. As a result, the loss of teeth occurs.
Different methods have been found to restore the alveolar bone lost in this disease. Since the basis of the methods is to regain the lost bone, the amount of lost bone is tried to be gained by applying sterile human bones obtained from the patient’s own bone or bone banks (bone graft) or materials imitating synthetic bone minerals to the defect area where the bone has been lost.
Although aggressive periodontitis occurs at a rate of 0.1-2% in the population, if it is not diagnosed in the early period, it exposes the people it affects to the need for intensive treatment at a young age, and sometimes leads to tooth loss and the need for prosthesis during the treatment applied.
7) How can gingival diseases be prevented?
As can be seen, it is of great importance for all people to start dental check-ups in infancy, and to continue regularly at least twice a year. Because only in this way, serious dental and gingival diseases such as aggressive periodontitis can be noticed in the early period and the negative situations caused can be prevented and treated easily. However, apart from all these controls, in order for the person to have a healthy oral and dental health throughout his life, he should cooperate with his doctor to take care of oral and dental care, and apply oral care correctly and continuously as taught.
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