Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Symptoms and Causes – 2022

breast cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer develops from the cells of the mammary gland. It is characteristic of females, but also occurs in men, although much less frequently.

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How I Found Out I Beast Cancer at 19 – 2022


Breast Cancer

Breast cancer develops from the cells of the mammary gland. It is characteristic of females, but also occurs in men, although much less frequently.

Globally, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in both developed and developing countries. Although breast cancer is thought to be a disease typical of economically developed countries, almost 50% of new cases and 58% of deaths have been reported from developing regions. In Africa, the incidence is 19.3 per 100,000 women, and in Western Europe – 89.7 per 100,000.

Both morbidity and survival in different countries vary dramatically – from over 80% in North America, Sweden and Japan, through 60% in middle-income countries and less than 40% in developing countries. The low survival rate in poorer regions can be explained by the lack of early diagnosis programs, as a result of which the disease is diagnosed much more often at an advanced stage.

Types of breast cancer

  • Ductal carcinoma – a cancer that starts from the ducts of the mammary gland (the ducts that carry milk from the lobules that produce it to the nipple). This is the most common type of breast cancer. It is typical for women over 55 years of age;
    • Ductal carcinoma in situ;
    • Invasive ductal carcinoma;
      • Tubular invasive ductal carcinoma;
      • Medullary invasive ductal carcinoma;
      • Mucinous invasive ductal carcinoma;
      • Papillary invasive ductal carcinoma;
      • Cribriform invasive ductal carcinoma;
  • Lobular carcinoma – a cancer that starts from the milk-producing lobules. This is the second most common type of breast cancer. Occurs in older women compared with ductal carcinoma;
    • Lobular carcinoma in situ;
    • Invasive lobular carcinoma;
  • Inflammatory carcinoma;
  • Paget’s disease;
  • Phylloid tumors.

Symptoms of breast cancer

Symptoms of breast cancer can be:

  • Appearance of a lump in the breast or a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast;
  • Change in the size, shape or appearance of the breast;
  • Change in the skin of the breast – the so-called skin type orange peel;
  • Nipple depression;
  • Peeling, peeling and flaking or flaking of the areola or skin of the breast;
  • Redness or sagging of the breast skin.

Causes of breast cancer

The cause of cancer is genetic mutations in breast cells that cause them to divide uncontrollably. These cells divide faster than normal and form a tumor that feels like a lump. Cells from this primary tumor can enter the lymph vessels, from there – in the lymph nodes and throughout the body, where they form metastases.

Scientists have found various environmental factors that increase the risk of developing breast cancer, but even people without any risk factors can get sick. Therefore, breast cancer is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Between 5-10% of all cases are hereditary

Risk factors for breast cancer

Factors associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer include:

  • Female – Women are much more likely to get breast cancer than men;
  • Old age;
  • Previous breast diseases – carcinoma in situ or atypical hyperplasia;
  • Previous breast cancer – if you have had cancer in one breast, the risk of developing cancer in the other is significantly increased;
  • Other family members (from the same country) with breast cancer – mother, sister or daughter, especially if the diagnosis was made at a young age;
  • Exposure to radiation;
  • Overweight;
  • Smoking;
  • Beginning of menstruation at a young age – first menstruation before 12 years of age;
  • Late menopause;
  • Birth of the first child after the age of 30;
  • Childlessness;
  • Hormone therapy to relieve menopausal symptoms – taking estrogen-containing drugs;
  • Alcohol abuse.


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