07/12/2022
Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer: Prevention – 2022

breast cancer

Breast Cancer: Prevention – 2022

To prevent breast cancer, it is important to follow a healthy lifestyle (quit smoking, alcohol, exercise regularly and maintain a normal body weight)…

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. About 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer are reported each year, and more than 522,000 women die from the disease each year worldwide.

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. About 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer are reported each year, and more than 522,000 women die from the disease each year worldwide. According to the American Cancer Society, one in eight women in the United States suffers from breast cancer – about 5,000 new episodes and more than 1,500 deaths are reported daily.

In Ukraine, the incidence of breast cancer ranks first among all malignant tumors found in women, according to the Center for Public Health (CGH) of the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Ukraine. However, this type of oncopathology affects not only women but also men.

According to the National Cancer Registry:

  • In 2016, 137,987 patients were registered in Ukraine with an oncologist for breast cancer
  • In 2017, 14,170 Ukrainians were diagnosed with breast cancer – 14,057 women and 113 men
  • In the same year, 5,823 people died of the disease (5,774 women and 49 men).
  • This means that every week about 110 Ukrainians die from breast cancer

Cancer is curable if it is detected in stage I – in 95% of women, in stage II – in 80%, in stage III – in 50% of women. Unfortunately, every fourth woman is diagnosed with this type of oncopathology at the III-IV stage, when the effectiveness of treatment is significantly reduced.

Risk factors for breast cancer

  • Heredity: first-line relatives (mother, grandmother, sister, aunt) who had breast cancer
  • The presence of mutations (BRCA 1, BRCA 2)
  • The presence of benign neoplasms of the breast
  • Absence of pregnancies and births
  • The first pregnancy is 30 years and older
  • Age over 40 years
  • Early onset of menstruation – under the age of 12 years
  • Late menopause – after 55 years
  • Continuous use of hormonal contraceptives for a long time, as well as hormone replacement therapy during menopause
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Hypertension
  • Previously suffered from breast cancer or ovarian cancer, uterine cancer
  • Influence of ionizing radiation

Symptoms suggestive of breast cancer

  • clear or bloody discharge from the breast
  • nipple retraction due to tumor growth in the skin
  • change in the color or texture of the skin of the breast (swelling, increase or decrease in size)
  • seals or tumors in the mammary glands
  • erosions, crusts, scales, ulcers in the nipple area, areolas
  • enlargement of the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes

However, these symptoms may be signs of conditions that are not malignant. It is important that any changes in the breast be checked by a doctor immediately. To do this, contact a qualified mammologist as soon as possible, who will schedule an examination and verify the diagnosis.

Diagnostic methods aimed at early detection of breast tumors include

  • palpation of the mammary glands and lymph nodes
  • Ultrasound of the mammary glands and lymph nodes
  • mammography (from 35 years)
  • determining the presence of BRCA1 or BRCA 2 mutations

These methods allow to detect cancer in the early stages, which significantly increases the good prognosis.

Prevention

To prevent breast cancer, it is important to follow a healthy lifestyle (quit smoking, alcohol, exercise regularly and maintain a normal body weight), as well as timely examination by a doctor:

  • mammologist – at least once every 1-2 years
  • Breast ultrasound and mammography after 35 years
  • Undergo genetic testing (BRCA 1 and BRCA 2) if hereditary breast cancer is suspected

 

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