Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer: Mammography – 2022

breast cancer

Breast Cancer: Mammography

Mammography is a classic method that easily visualizes the breast. Sensitivity is low in young women with dense breasts. Breast cancer…

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How To Catch Breast Cancer Early: Stanford Doctors Explain Mammography Options



Mammography is a classic method that easily visualizes the breast. Sensitivity is low in young women with dense breasts. By compressing the breast, cross-sectional images of each breast are taken from different angles. Depending on the tissue structure of your breast and your risk status, it will be beneficial to have a mammogram at the periods determined by your doctor.

Application of Tomosynthesis in Breast Cancer; It provides an extremely comprehensive examination of the nozzle in 3D and 1mm sections. A low-dose X-ray is sent from a machine that moves around it by compressing the nozzle. The resulting images are 3D images. Although it uses more radiation than most standard mammograms, it provides a clearer view of the problem area and no further imaging tests are required. Tomosynthesis is an image test approved in 2011, but the role of this technology in screening and diagnosis is not yet clear.

Breast MRI Application in Breast Cancer; It is multifocal, especially for women with a young and dense breast structure, and can guide the characterization of small lesions. With MR, which is a radiation-free method, successful results are obtained especially in the imaging of soft tissues. Many cancer foci that cannot be detected by other diagnostic methods can be detected. However, MR alone is not considered sufficient in the detection of breast cancer.

Can suspicious mammography results be illuminated with breast MRI? Can breast MRI detect additional cancer foci? Do the detected foci affect the treatment decision?

PET-Tomography Application in Breast Cancer; PET-tomography, a highly advanced imaging technology used today, is used as an effective method in tumor scanning of the whole body. It is frequently preferred in breast cancer patients in the high-risk group, in the staging of the cancer and in the detailed examination of the lesions that occur as a result of follow-up, and in determining the effectiveness of the treatments applied to the patient with metastases. However, it is not yet a practical and appropriate method for evaluating the breast or using it as a screening method. I believe that PET technology will be in a position to replace PEM (Positron Emission Mammography) only for scanning the breast and identifying the lesions in the breast in the very near future.

Breast Ultrasound Application in Breast Cancer; Ultrasound, also known as sonography, is a method of imaging a part of the body using sound waves. For this test, an instrument such as a microphone that detects the energy flow is placed on the skin (usually a gel is applied first). This instrument absorbs sound waves and collects bouncing echoes from body tissues. The echoes are reflected on the computer screen as a black and white image. This test is painless and radiation free.

Breast ultrasound is occasionally used for breast problems that occur during a physical exam or mammogram. Sometimes, it can act as a support in women with dense breast tissue to add additional assistance to mammography. However, ultrasound alone instead of mammography for breast cancer imaging is not recommended as it does not give sufficient results.

Ultrasound is a useful method for the evaluation of some breast masses. Since cysts cannot be detected by physical examination alone, it is the only way to tell if the suspicious area is a cyst. Ultrasound is also used as a method to assist in taking biopsy from some breast lesions.

Ultrasound has become a frequently used method along with mammography for a more detailed examination. However, its effect depends on the experience and skill of the practitioner.

Biopsy in breast cancer

Before breast biopsy

Biopsy is not an emergency response method. First of all, it should be determined whether the person is suitable for this operation and then the operation should be planned. Experts say that rarely used needle biopsies should be preferred instead of frequently used surgical biopsies in approximately 90% of biopsies. However, research shows that about 70% of breast biopsies are still performed as surgical biopsies. This means that many women without breast cancer undergo unnecessary surgery; It also means that women with breast cancer will need to have a second operation to remove the cancer. Therefore, all details should be considered when deciding on the biopsy to be performed.

Here are some points you should consult with your doctor before performing a biopsy: Review the results of mammography and other imaging tests with your doctor. Get information from your doctor about the area to be biopsied. Get detailed information about the type of biopsy recommended for you and why this type of biopsy is recommended. Also, ask if a needle biopsy can be substituted when surgical biopsy is recommended. Talk to your doctor about why and how the biopsy will be performed. Ask your doctor any questions you have in mind and make sure that you get a clear answer. Find out when and how you can get biopsy results.

A few days after the biopsy, the pathology report containing the results of the examination of the tissue sample will be released.

Breast cancer can be suspected based on the results obtained after imaging tests such as mammography and MRI and physical examination. However, in order to make a definitive diagnosis, a tissue sample should be taken from the suspicious area and examined under a microscope. A biopsy is a small operation performed to take a tissue sample from the suspicious area of ​​the body. A biopsy may be requested when a suspicious condition is seen in the breast as a result of physical examination and/or imaging tests. The tissue sample taken by biopsy is examined by the pathologist to determine whether there is a cancer cell. If cancer is found, the pathologist determines its type by examining the characteristic features of the cancer. The biopsy report is the results after these examinations.

A biopsy is usually a simple procedure. While cancer is detected in only about 20% of women biopsied in the USA, the rare application of biopsy in Sweden due to cost savings and biopsy only for suspicious lesions (wounds), leads to the detection of malignant cancer in 80% of women. This shows how important a biopsy is performed in the early diagnosis and treatment of cancer in case of any suspicious changes in the body.


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